How Do You Become a Literary Agent?

business womanBelieve it or not, I get emails regularly from people who want to become literary agents, and they want advice on how to do it. Typically, the people who send these emails are either right out of college or they’re looking for a career change, and they don’t have experience in publishing.

It’s hard to answer these letters without sounding completely discouraging, but here’s the truth:

If you haven’t already spent years working in the publishing industry… if you don’t already have a solid understanding of where this industry has been and where it’s going… now may not be the best time to try and break in, especially as a literary agent.

At this moment in time, agents have no long-term job security. (Of course, people in many industries can say the same thing.) People are still reading and buying books, but publishing is changing and with it, the role of agents is going to change. Nobody knows what the agents of today will be doing ten years from now. Some will still be agents, I think. Many will have other roles in “publishing” if you define it as helping to connect authors with readers. Other agents will have retired or found different careers altogether.

I’m not saying you shouldn’t strive to be part of the publishing world. But if you set a goal of being a literary agent and you haven’t worked in a publishing house, be aware it will take years working in publishing to develop the contacts, skills and experience to successfully be an agent.

Most literary agents came to it after working for 5, 10, even 20 years in another area of publishing. Some started off in literary agencies as interns or assistants and working their way up through the ranks to become an agent. The most important thing to know if you’re wanting to get into publishing or agenting is that you’ll need to work at a publishing house or literary agency for a significant amount of time to learn enough to do it on your own.

To become a literary agent, start by getting a job in publishing.

People often say, “But I can’t move, and there are no publishers or agencies where I live.” I don’t have a good answer to that.

So what does it take to be a literary agent?

1. Several years experience in publishing, and a good working knowledge of how books are created, marketed and sold. An understanding of the publishing marketplace in general.

2. Good contacts throughout publishing, preferably with editors who acquire books for publishing houses.

3. Familiarity with publishing contracts and high level of comfort working with them.

4. Understanding of how to negotiate in publishing.

5. A genuine caring about authors and writing; a love of books, literature and reading.

6. A good business sense and a strong understanding of how to be a sales person.

7. An ability to balance the business and relational aspects of author representation.

8. An entrepreneurial spirit and a go-getter attitude. Even if you’re working in a big agency, this is a job you really create yourself. Good agents are usually the kind of people who are proactive and like to make things happen.

9. A willingness to keep up with rapidly changing technologies that are determining the future of publishing.

10. A commitment to ethical business practices.

These are just a few thoughts off the top of my head. Feel free to add your own ideas.

What would YOU say to someone who wants to become a literary agent?


Rachelle Gardner

Literary agent at Gardner Literary. Coffee & wine enthusiast (not at the same time) and dark chocolate connoisseur. I've worked in publishing since 1995 and I love talking about books!


  1. Marryssa Smith on June 26, 2015 at 3:13 PM

    I’m going to be a senior in high school this up coming year What classes should i take in college to become a literary agent? Are there any classes i should take to in high school? I really want this career but i am not sure what i nee to do.

  2. […] I think this is a book-related job that many overlook, and admittedly it’s not easy to break into (but then again, what is?). But just what is it that a literary agent does anyway? Here’s an interview with a literary agent to help you understand what they do. To become a literary agent, you’ll need to gain experience by working in the publishing industry first so you can become knowledgeable about the market. If the idea of discovering new authors excites you and you have a confident, go-getter attitude, this may be a job that would fit you. […]

  3. Christina Forster on September 7, 2014 at 7:08 AM

    My brother has depression and social anxiety, so I’ve decided that when he’s ready to get his first book out there, I want to be the one who does all the foot work. Turning it in to publishers, getting it marketed, helping through the process. I thought that would mean I would be acting as an agent, but I guess I’d just be a liaison?

  4. Christopher Greer on November 7, 2013 at 11:57 AM

    I enjoyed reading this post. I’ve been working in the publishing industry for a short time and ran my own magazine/newsletter for a number of years. Most of what I tell people is much the same only with more emphasis on “go get it”. If people want it badly enough they can make it happen. I think it’s harder to find an agent than to become one. Can you write a post on how to get an agent? I would find that very informative.

  5. On Being A Literary Agent | People at Work & Play on October 23, 2013 at 7:32 PM

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  8. Ace on April 19, 2012 at 11:01 AM

    Hi! I’ve always wanted to be a teenage literary agent…I’m just not exactly sure how to do that since I can’t exactly move too New York (I live in Florida) and I don’t know any literary agents. Period.
    How would I approach this certain field? Thanks!

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  10. joseph morris on January 9, 2012 at 11:29 PM

    I don’t want to be agent really. at least not to earn a living. I just want the knowledge to represent my work as my own agent.

  11. Leah on September 19, 2011 at 4:04 AM

    I like this post, enjoyed this one appreciate it for posting .

  12. Laura W. on August 14, 2011 at 12:15 AM

    Flexibility and the ability to juggle multiple commitments? That’s probably a skill needed in many careers, but it seems to particularly fit an agent.

  13. Varburg Rendell on August 12, 2011 at 2:24 PM

    Interesting question demands interesting answer.And my answer would be:
    “Sleep over my friend ,people can be a lot smarter in the morning”.

  14. Tom Evans on August 12, 2011 at 11:26 AM

    I’ve been resisting it for years but yesterday I signed my first deal with an author and publisher. It was a match made in heaven & I think I’ve got the bug now – deets here

  15. Pedrinho on August 11, 2011 at 10:00 AM

    What would I say to someone who wants to be an agent?

    Good luck & have fun 🙂

  16. […] How Do You Become a Literary Agent? » 11 August 2011 | Permalink […]

  17. Ginny Martyn on August 10, 2011 at 6:39 PM

    1) thick skin

    2) a silver tongue

    3) heart o’ gold

    4) memory like a steel trap

    5) eyes in the back of your head

    6) a nose for news

    7) and a rear to steer clear of everything else

  18. joan Cimyotte on August 10, 2011 at 5:36 PM

    I’m a writer not a salesperson. I can paint the set but I don’t want to act on it. I’m not the dancer but I like to watch. I just know my limitations.

  19. Beth MacKinney on August 10, 2011 at 5:24 PM

    Thanks for the post, Rachelle. (As for an agent wanna-be, I can’t say what I’d tell him, other than that he’s crazy unless he has the experience you listed above.)

    Here’s a question for you: When you encounter a publishing website that looks like it’s very new and it’s not a publisher you’ve ever heard of, (and we’re assuming that they aren’t a vanity house, but might possibly be a house that someone just started up recently) what are questions a writer can ask to make sure that this house knows what it’s doing and that it will be able to go the distance in the publishing arena?

  20. Ramona Richards on August 10, 2011 at 4:58 PM

    Once upon a time, I took a job as a booker for a CCM artist. That lasted about a month. I was lousy at it. Being a go-between is my recipe for acid reflux. I also like to eat. I remember these two things if I even consider becoming a literary agent.

    If someone asked me about becoming one, I’d recommend (as someone said above) volunteering to read a agent’s slush pile, or likewise interning with an established agent in order to learn the business. A supporting (and supportive) spouse helps, as do Christmas stockings full of McDonald’s gift cards….

  21. Ollin Morales on August 10, 2011 at 3:09 PM

    Well, from the author’s perspective I would say that what I look for, or will look for in a literary agent is someone who is passionate.

    Passionate about the work I do and passionate about writing, reading and the genre I write in.

    Also, someone who understands social media and what’s new with publishing, not someone who stubbornly clings to the way things used to work.

    Yet, someone who also values that which has never been negotiable for me: quality over quantity.

  22. Valerie Brooks on August 10, 2011 at 2:10 PM

    Okay, I’ll chime in: If you are young and/or right out of college, read an agent’s slush pile and learn how to write truly helpful reader reports. Then offer to to absolutely anything the agent needs in addition to that. If you need to make money, do this part time while making money at a different on the side.

  23. Clarice James on August 10, 2011 at 12:21 PM

    1. Examine your motives. Remember, money, fame and power are red flags.
    2. Take an honest inventory of your personality traits and skills.
    3. Ask those who know you well what they think of the idea.
    4. Research the background of other agents and see if it looks anything like yours.
    5. Ask yourself: “Would I want ME to represent ME before publishers and editors?”
    5. If you’re a follower of Jesus, and He tells you clearly, “Go thou and become a literary agent” then go where He leads.

    Personally, I’m fine being me; and I’m thankful for those who can do a job I can’t.

  24. Cassandra on August 10, 2011 at 12:16 PM

    Everything Rachelle said, and also what Kristin Nelson says today on PubRants about thriving on — or at least being psychologically resilient in the face of — unrelenting conflict.

  25. Melissa Alexander on August 10, 2011 at 12:08 PM

    I’d ask them if they had a spouse or family members who could support them, a source of independent wealth, or a second job to pay bills. It can take years to make a living wage as a literary agent — something that especially sucks if you’re trying to maintain a residence in NYC at the same time.

  26. Brianna on August 10, 2011 at 11:57 AM

    Great post. As cool as it would be to get paid to read, I am definitely better off sticking to the writing end of things. I know it’s just not reading, which is why I say that.

  27. Cynthia Herron on August 10, 2011 at 11:33 AM

    I’d say, “Well, that’s a little easier than a root canal…”


  28. Richard Mabry on August 10, 2011 at 10:02 AM

    If someone asked me how they could become an agent, I would:

    1) ask them if they’d considered something else—perhaps bull-fighting or sky-diving–instead.
    2) shake my head sadly.
    3) refer them to this excellent post (that describes Rachelle’s background and qualifications quite well, by the way).

  29. Peter DeHaan on August 10, 2011 at 9:59 AM

    I’ve never considered being an agent — and now I know for sure that it would not be a good fit for me. Five of the first six items on the list of “what it takes” are definitely not me.

    And now I have even more respect for those who are agents and possess these qualities.

    Thanks for an informative post.

  30. Elizabeth Everson on August 10, 2011 at 9:54 AM

    An agent must have a willingness to connect and engage with people everywhere, all of the time. The agents I’ve met are “people” people; they listen to elevator pitches, pitches during breakfast, sometimes get chased down hallways. They attend conferences, and even if they’re not interested in someone’s work, they have an encouraging, engaging manner.

  31. Rick Barry on August 10, 2011 at 9:22 AM

    Seems to me that individuals who have to ask you how to become an agent have just proven that isn’t the next career choice for them (unless perhaps they’re in college and are willing to become an intern somewhere). All the agents I admire most were already plugged into the publishing world well before they moved into this profession. They knew the ropes, and that background knowledge translates into current expertise.

    Questions I receive are more on the level of, “You’ve freelanced hundreds of articles, short stories, and even written books. I have a computer…how can I become a writer, too?” Wow. Where do I even begin to explain…?

    • Chris Parker on June 24, 2012 at 9:30 PM

      Rick Barry:

      I’m aware of how old your post is but I think that’s a rather ignorant thing to say. Researching the inroads in ANY endeavor is a good idea instead of flying by the seat of your pants. Even similar industries can work very different from one another. The person who seeks the information they might need in the future and is willing to work their way up would seem a more motivated person, and perhaps even a better fit for the career, than someone who sold insurance for years but wanted a career change and jumped tracks.

  32. Anna Banks on August 10, 2011 at 8:55 AM

    I would say, “Good luck. You’ve got some pretty stout competition out there, like Rachelle Gardner and Lucy Carson. Have you ever thought about going into insurance, maybe?”

  33. Wendy on August 10, 2011 at 8:26 AM

    I think it’s cool you included #5 (especially the word genuine).

    ~ Wendy

  34. otin on August 10, 2011 at 7:16 AM

    I would tell them that they better enjoy reading quite a bit. lol

  35. Robyn Bradley on August 10, 2011 at 7:12 AM

    Simple. I would say, “Read this post by literary agent Rachelle Gardner on how to become a literary agent.” 🙂

  36. Chris Lunda on August 10, 2011 at 3:23 AM

    Considering the slow reaction from the publishing industry to what going on, I would disqualify an agent for those prerequsites

  37. Colin Smith on August 10, 2011 at 2:34 AM

    I would ask them if they know what an agent does. And once they’ve researched that, I would then ask if they believe they have the skills, experience, and temperament to do those things. The work of an agent sounds fun–especially when you have great colleagues, great clients, and you’re selling books to big publishers with large dollar amounts attached. But we all know that’s not the norm even for the best agents. And this is why I don’t think I’d make a good agent. Unlike writing, I don’t think it’s something I would love enough to do even on the worst of days, weeks, or months.

  38. Sally Apokedak on August 10, 2011 at 2:12 AM

    I’d make a terrible agent. I hate to speak to people face to face (unless I know them pretty well). So I think I’d tell someone that wanted to be an agent that they have to be able to meet and converse well with editors. Otherwise the manuscripts they send will land in a slush pile, won’t they? I’m guessing that there is an unsolicited agent slushpile that is just one step up from an unsolicited author slushpile.